Hmm, I can only offer limited help for a couple reasons. One is I have done very little "true nomadism" in India, just because I know too many people all over the country. The majority of the friends I grew up with in the Middle East are scattered all over India now, so I mostly wind up crashing with a friend who hosts me instead of booking a hostel and trying to figure out cost-efficiency on my own when I travel in India.
Secondly, I only visit metropolitan cities, because I work on a mobile internet tech product and need perennial stable internet connectivity and power. And it's bad enough as it is in most tier 2 cities (like Kochi, my hometown, for example). Since your work will be in rural areas mostly, any suggestions I give may not be super useful. I have heard good things about Zostel if you're in my kind of situation and want good internet and a stable environment. Not sure how well it translates to your usecases. I haven't tried it myself yet.
My most valuable information to share with an Indian nomad-wannabe would be regarding visas for other countries, what places have food an Indian would like (although I now eat just about anything), and how society in different countries view Indians (some like us, some don't) and which societies you might feel at home in (whether that's what you want or want to avoid).
India itself, well, it's not ready yet to be a digital-nomad-friendly. Regarding general nomadism, if you lead a simple lifestyle it's easy to keep very cheap.
If you ever happen to be in Kochi when I'm here (which granted is rare), I'd be happy to offer you a place to stay at my parents' house